Manor Improvements and Investments

The Manorial Hall

Estates normally have Large Wooden Halls (Defense Value 2). However, some of these are fortified with a small Enclosure capable of holding all manorial personnel plus the peasants from nearby, with animals. These fortified manors have Defense Value (DV) of 4/2. The enclosure protects ½ acre with a 500 ft perimeter.

Type Cost Min Furnishings DV Glory
Simple Wooden Hall £13 £2 1 0
Simple Stone Hall £24 £2 2 0
Large Wooden Hall £24 £5 2 1
Large Stone Hall £35 £5 3 1
Great Stone Hall £50 £10 3 2
Enclosure £4 - 4 4
Tile / Lead roof £2/6 - +1/2 1/2


Furniture costs vary immensely, so just list the lump value, with notes such as “£ 1 for carved ebony bed” and “£ 2 in tapestries from France.” Noblemen bring all treasure, including furnishings, with them when they move from place to place. They never furnish someplace where the lord is not. The table for the halls shows the minimum furnishings a hall is expected to have.

Hall Decorations

These are non-disposable decorations in the hall (detailing, paint, tiles, painted scenes.) Estate lords are expected to have decorations equal to five
percent of their annual income. A newly-generated hall begins with this. A lord with a £10 estate chooses £0.5 of decoration for his hall. Hall decorations can be added to any manor house. Glory for decorations is a one-time award. If the manor is burned down, all its decorations are lost (but the Glory is retained).

Decorations Cost Glory Portable?
Exterior whitewash £2+ 2 No
Carved doors, lintels, corbels etc. £ 1-3+ 1/£ Yes
Painted interior rooms £ 1+ 1/£ No
Mosaic £3+ 2/£ Yes

Secret Security

Tunnel, Secret Escape

Cost: £40 for ½ mile
Maintenance: 0
Glory: None. It’s a secret!
Special Use: If the manor is surrounded, the residents can use this to escape and exit behind their lines. If the manor is ever successfully assaulted, the lady, children and perhaps others can escape into or through this and avoid capture or death.


This is a place where treasure is hidden. It is an iron strongbox with locks, kept in a secret, well-hidden place. Everything possible is done to
conceal its location. It might be under the floor, in a hole in the woods, under the pig sty, or wherever the lord specifies. Write the location on your character sheet or estate record. This isn’t a cash box – this is a “put it out of sight until I need it” box.
Cost: £4
Maintenance: £0
Glory: None. It’s a secret!
Benefit: No one can find the money, even if the estate is Ravaged. Write down the location.


Fortifications are a special type of Improvement that increase the defense of the manor. They provide an annual glory equal to their Defensive Value (DV), and the maintenance cost for these works is included in the estate’s operating expenses and thus need not be tracked. A manor requires 500 feet of wall if such defences are required, a motte-and-bailey castle requires 1,000 feet.


An enclosed manor has a minimum garrison of 5 professional combatants, and a maximum of 100. This minimal defense also presumes that about ten to twenty unprofessional combatants are present, fighting as well as they can for their lives, families and livestock. Artillery defending fortifications also require engineers to operate them.
Each professional combatant can cover about a hundred feet of wall. They will command, inspire and otherwise lead the commoners who are pushing down ladders, dropping rocks, pouring hot liquids or otherwise doing the best they can with the hoes, shovels and scythes that make up their pitiful armament. It is assumed that professionals rush towards any part of the wall that has been mounted by the enemy. Note that any losses from this minimal number of professionals will diminish the Defense Value.

Defensive Value

Defense Value increases the skill of defenders within fortifications. The rate is +5 Combat skills per point of Defense Value minus (Siege Equipment + Assault Gear) used in an attack. This makes even a commoner with Combat skills of 2 into a formidable opponent behind fortifications.
When a fortification has several layers of defense, they are given in the order that they must be overcome. Each level must be overcome before
the next one can be assailed.
Assault Gear and Siege Equipment can reduce the DV, but cannot conquer a castle alone — assault troops are required for that. Assault Gear can be used to defend fortifications too. Assault Gear is used up in an assault.
The Early Phase has very few stone fortifications. All which exist have been maintained since Roman times. Siege equipment is unknown in the early Phase.

Fortification Cost Maintenance Defence Value Glory Notes
Ditch and Rampart £5 £½ 2 2 Often combined with Palisade
Moat £2 £½ 2 - Requires a ditch and access to water
Palisade £15 £1 2 2 Requires a rampart
Tower, Wooden £25 £1 2 2
Tower, Stone £50 £1 5 5


Enhancement or Investment Cost Income Maintenance Benefits, Other Glory
Guest House Varies by size Check Hospitality Var.
Hospital Varies by no. of patients Check Merciful Var.
Hunting Lodge £5 0 £1 Roll for hunting 1
Jousting Arena £5 0 0 Lord and his knights check Lance 5 (once)
Kennel Large £2+2 0 £1 +1d6 on hunting for pack 1
Leprosarium Varies by no. of lepers Check Merciful Var.
Mews Varies by size Check Falconry Var.
Monument £2–25 0 0 Check Spiritual for own religion; Worldly for other 1x = Cost
Pillar, Obelisk £4-10 0 0 Check Proud 1x = Cost, 1 annual
Standing Stone, Circle Var. 0 0 Pagans check Spiritual (once only) 1x = Cost, 1 annual
Statue Var. 0 0 Check Proud 1x = Cost, 1 annual
Torture chamber £20 0 £2 Check Cruel and Intrigue; +5 Intrigue for local events 1
Trilithon £10 0 0 Pagans check Spiritual 1x = Cost, 1 annual

Guest House

Guests normally stay in the Hall or Stable. Guest Houses provide additional comfortable lodging (but no kitchen) for 10/20/30 people.
Cost: £10/15/20
Maintenance: £2/3/4


A Hospital provides free healing for 10/15/20 poor people.
Cost: £8/10/12
Maintenance: £4 + 4 per 10 patients

Hunting Lodge

A hunting lodge is a cabin in the woods or wilds that is suitable for a couple of nights stay. A resident caretaker keeps it repaired and tidy, and always has a small supply of food on hand in case his lord shows up unexpectedly.

Jousting Arena

A Jousting Arena is a sand-covered lot that is suitable for public displays of this art. It also includes training equipment, such as a quintain, carousel with rings, and so on.

Kennel, Large

Every manor has a breeding population of ordinary dogs that keeps ten or twelve in active service. These are used for hunting, herding, as watch dogs, etc. This large kennel is a formal structure with many pens, runs, a dog master and includes the costs for training dogs, equipment like muzzles, collars and leashes, etc. The average kennel will have 25 or so dogs, plus specialized hunting breeds. Presence of the pack grants +1d6 to hunting (in addition offsetting the -5 for not having a pack present)


Lepers are victims of a terrible disease, seen as disgusting by British of all types. They are restricted in their travel, and will find care and doctoring
Cost: £20 per 25 residents
Maintenance: £6 per 25 residents
Glory: 10 per 25 residents, up to 25 maximum


A Mews is a large and elaborate facility for keeping and training 6/10/12 hawks and falcons, as well as training them. The staff also captures new birds, and keeps them healthy.
Cost: £2/3/4, including initial stock
Maintenance: £ 1/1.5/ 2 with 1/2/3 falconer(s)
Glory: 2/3/4
Note: More exotic types of birds must be captured, with + £1/2/3 cost, +1/2/3 maintenance (including a Master Falconer and assistants), for +1/2/3 Glory


This is a memorial to commemorate a great battle or other auspicious event.
Cost: £2 minimum, up to £25 (for local stone)
Benefits: Check Spiritual if the Monument is to the lord’s own religion; check Worldly for any other.
Glory: One-time, equal to cost. If already present when the estate is gained, this Glory is not realized.

Monument, Religious

A simple carving, altar, or other edifice made of local stone, marking a holy place or event. It is out of doors, not kept up, and eventually weathers from elements, becoming covered with detritus and overgrown with moss. It can be Christian or Pagan. Whoever raises it checks Spiritual (once).
Cost: £ 4 minimum
Glory: One-time, equal to Cost, 1 annual

Pillar, obelisk

A shaped monument without religious overtones, perhaps raised to memorialize a recent event, a celebrated personage, or to simply honor the place.
Cost: £ 4-10, depending on height
Glory: One-time, equal to Cost.

Standing Stone, Stone Circle

A stone slab, perhaps mildly adorned or carved, usually raised by Pagans. Such stones are typically about ten feet tall, three feet wide and a foot thick (thirty cubic feet). Larger stones increase costs proportionately by volume. Multiple stones in a circle or side by side cost the same for each. Check Spiritual (once only), if Pagan
Cost: £2
Glory: One-time, equal to Cost, 1 annual


A human-sized Statue can be religious or secular, and might depict a person, animal, plant or mythological figure.
Cost: £4 for local stone. For special stone brought to the site, cost increases by +4 per 25 miles of transport.
Glory: One-time, equal to Cost, 1 annual

Torture chamber

Torture, though noted for its cruelty, is not condemned. Torture Chambers are thus common to many lords who find them useful. They give + to Intrigue rolls concerning local events or as otherwise deemed appropriate by the Gamemaster.
Cost: £20
Maintenance: £2
Glory: 1


Two upright stones with a horizontal top across them are more difficult to shape than mere stone slabs, and topping them is very difficult.
Cost: £ 10
Glory: One-time, equal to Cost, 1 annual


Enhancement or Investment Cost Income Maintenance Benefits, Other Glory
Abbey Var. 0 0 Monk specialist, roll Spiritual and Religion, plus Advowson 1x = Cost
Almshouse £10 0 £2+donation. Check Generous donation
Chapel £8 0 0 Roll Love (God) 1
Church, Large, Roman £50/200 0 0 Roll Spiritual, Religion, Love (God) (once) 1x = Costx3
Church, Large, British £50/200 £10 0 Roll Love (God) Maintenance
Church, Small, Roman £25 0 0 Roll Spiritual, Religion, Love (God) (once) 1x = Costx3
Church, Small, British £25 £3 0 Roll Spiritual and Religion, but see Advowson Maintenace
Hermitage £5 0 £½ Roll Spiritual 2
Pagan Temple, Large £25 min. 0 5 Roll Religion 1x = Cost
Pagan Temple, Small £15 min. 0 3 Roll Religion 1x = Cost
Sacred Grove £5 0 0 Roll Worldly, Religion (once) 15
Votive Well £5 0 0 Roll Worldly, Religion (once) 1x 15


This is a privately funded house that gives aid to the poor. All money over the maintenance of the almoner (£2) is given as donations. £1 of donations is sufficient to feed and clothe 10 people a year – the quality of the food and clothing will not be as good as that of a normal peasant family, but will be sufficient to keep them alive and clothed through the year.


This is a small, free-standing structure suitable to house a statue or crucifix, a small altar, plus enough space for up to 25 people to gather for prayer. This price includes pews, kneelers, altar dressings, etc. It has no resident priest, hence no maintenance cost. A resident priest would cost £1/year, but typically these are left vacant at crossroads, hunting lodges, etc.

Church, Small

A small building for Christian worship, capable of sitting 300 or so people, suitable for serving a town. The typical staff is one priest and his
assistants. Small Churches are made of wood, wattle, and thatch, with simple decorations and accoutrements.

Church, Large

A place for Christian worship, capable of sitting 750 or so people. The typical staff is of several priests and their assistants. Large Churches are
made of wood and have thatched roofs, with beautiful decorations and accoutrements. A wooden church costs £50 to build, a stone church £200.


This is a little shelter for a hermit to live in. It also includes the cost of maintaining a resident there year-round, who typically prays for the patron as part of his daily routine of devotion. Often the hermit acts a spiritual advisor to the patron as well.

Pagan Temple, Small

This is made of wood, and has a thatched roof, with an idol (classical or non-classical style), handsome decorations, and appropriate accoutrements. One priest(ess) and an assistant tend to its care. A typical Mithraeum would be a Small Temple.

Pagan Temple, Large

A Large Temple is capable of holding 600 or so people, with its open-air walls , and is appropriate for a village or town. The typical staff is a priest or priestess, and several assistants. The temple is either made of wood or stone, and has a tiled or thatched roof; the cost includes an idol (probably classical, possibly non-classical style), handsome decorations, and appropriate accoutrements. The ritual complex of Sulis-Minerva in Bath would be an example of a Large Temple.

Sacred Grove

Pagans may dedicate a woodland glen or a grove of trees in their Wastes for worship, since many of their deities shun man-made temples. The land may not be used for grazing hogs or for logging, and introduces more roleplaying opportunities (stumbling upon ongoing worship, offending a resident entity, etc.) than economic effects. A few large, powerful groves called nemetons are known, but they are outside of this description.

Votive Well

Pagans may also dedicate a naturally occurring spring or well for worship. A small stone or wooden idle may be placed nearby. Worship usually consists of tossing in valuable objects, such as silver coins, weapons, armor, expensive art pieces, wine, and the like. Generally, the more costly the offering, the greater the expectation of divine blessing.

Enhancement or Investment Cost Income Maintenance Benefits, Other Glory
Apiary £2 £1d2 £1 Roll energetic and -1 bonus to Weather 0
Chace N/A Var. 0 Check Hunting or Falconry 0
Coneygarth £4 £2 0 Check Cowardly and Lustful 0
Deer Park Varies by size. 0 Venison for the lord’s table 0
Deer Run £10 +1 0 More venison for the lord’s table 0
Ferry, small £5 £1d3-1 0 0
Fishery £10 x2 Weir income 0 Requires weirs (maximum of three per Fishery). 0
Mellisarium £6 £1 0 Check Energetic 0
Orchard £10 Var. Varies by age 0
Riding and Route £40 0 0 Allows boat passage with Weirs 0
Salthouse £10 £1 0 At Seashore only, often in multiples 0
Sheep Herd £7 £1 0 Provides milk, meat, wool; replaces agricultural income 0
Tolls Varies by size. Requires royal license 0
Vaccary, Dairy £15 £2 0 Provides milk, leather and meat 0
Vineyard £12 Varies. £1/year for first three years Provides fruit and wine. Yearly 1d20 roll; destroyed on a 20. 0
Weir, Kydell Var. £ ½ each 0 Provides fresh fish; can earn the enmity of boatmen 0
Woods N/A Var. Income, risk of overexploitation 0


An apiary is a bee colony. All manors have some bees. This is a large one, with dozens of hives and a caretaker for them. Their presence will enhance all the crops, and provide honey to sell or make into mead, and wax for candles.


A Chace (sometimes “Chase”) is a private hunting area, usually contained within a Royal Forest from which it has been taken. Only its owner and his guests are allowed to hunt in it; the king commonly keeps all other rights.

A Chace cannot be built, as they are open wilds; it’s an area simply designated as such. They cannot be settled. They have maintenance cost which is already subtracted from their income. The costs are for the caretakers who maintain the forest, tracking where types of trees grow, protecting some plants and burning others, and noting squatters and poachers for the sheriff. Thus a Chace is a distinct resource.

These stats are for a typical chace of five thousand acres (approximately eight square miles or 2.5 × 2.5 miles) in size. Larger and smaller Chaces
exist, and their income can be figured based on this average. Many Chaces also have a Deer Park.

Cost: None. It is granted by the king.
Income: Varies, dependent upon the terms of the grant:

  • Hunting rights: £ 4
  • Warren (Falconry) rights: £ 1
  • Timber rights: £ 4
  • Pannage (pig feeding) rights: £ 2
  • Other miscellaneous rights: £ 3
  • Benefits: Check Hunting or Falconry


This is a large artificial enclosure, surrounded by water (since rabbits do not like swimming), with prepared “pillow mounds” where rabbits and/or hares nest and reproduce with their legendary prolific powers. It is also called a rabbitry, or cunicularium. Hares and rabbits are notable for
their cowardliness, and even knights observing them must note that, once or twice, this helps the rabbits survive, hence the Trait rolls required.

Deer Park

A Deer Park is a large artificial structure built in the forest, often within a chase. To build one requires a license from the king, as well as having
hunting rights. These are built only in poor lands and forests, not in farmlands.
They range in size from ⅓ to 1 square mile in area, with both wooded lands and fields within. A circular ditch and embankment surrounds it, with
the ditch inside. Deer can leap in, but not out, due to the height.
It’s good deer-land inside, and the foresters keep the animals fed even in winter. Whenever the lord wants or needs venison for his table the foresters go into the park with butchers and bearers to systematically harvest the venison, with larger parks providing hundreds of carcasses at a time.
Sizes: ⅓ / ⅔ / 1 square mile
Cost to Build: £50/100/150. This is cheaper than a fortification ditch
Income: £3/6/9

Deer Run

Sometimes a Deer Run is part of a Deer Park. This is a fence that starts wide, and ends at a Deer Park. Foresters regularly have a deer roundup in the surrounding lands that send the beasts to funnel through the run and into the deer park. Predators that are trapped this way are quickly dispatched.


A Fishery is a fish processing station where fish are gutted, cleaned and salted. A Fishery is necessary for commercial processing. Its value depends on the number of fish caught, i.e., the number of Weirs (maximum of three per Fishery), which are built separately.


This is a honey and wax farm with dozens of beehives. It requires a large amount of space. It replaces apiaries if any are present.


Players should choose what type of tree is planted. Common Orchards are made of apple, pear, cherry, plum, chestnut, and walnut trees. More exotic fruits may be raised if the player provides research to back it up.
Only mature trees bear fruit, slowly increasing their yield over time.
Income: Years 1–4: £-1; years 5–8: 0; years 9–12: £1; years 13–16: £2; year 17 +: £3.


A lord must have a seaside holding to construct these. Multiple evaporators are common.

Sheep Herd

Every farm has some sheep, but they are a source of income in areas that are unsuitable for farming, especially hilly lands. Salisbury, with its extensive chalk downs, is one of those areas. About half of the income from Salisbury manors comes from sheep. Thus a manor of £ 10 gets half its income from the meat and wool of their herds.


The king might grant a license to charge a Toll over a bridge, on a ferry, or stretches of road. The cost shown is for a replacement or new watch/collection post and house for the collector or staff. The king commonly retains part of the large tolls.

  • Small (Local ford/bridge): £½ income, £1 to build
  • Medium (small + market roads): £½-1 income, £1 to build
  • Large (medium + major rive/royal roads): £½-2 income

Vaccary, Dairy

This is a large cattle farm. It produces extra milk, leather and meat.


Vineyards provide fresh fruit, raisins, and wine. Note that grapes are delicate crops and may die suddenly, even after many years.
Income: £-1 for the first three years; £3 per year afterwards
Complication: Each year, including maturation, roll 1d20. On a result of 20, the vines die.

Weir, Kydell

This is a large fish trap. It includes simple drying and curing facilities on the nearest shore. Larger rivers allow for more fish traps, just as shallower tidal basins do. Streams are too small for Weirs. Large rivers are the Thames up to Oxen Ford and most tributaries to the first notable settlement. Medium covers named rivers on the maps. These can bear boats and are wide enough for two to three to pass eachother.
Cost: £5 for stone (permanent, unless broken by boatmen); £1.5 for wood and wicker, roll 1d6 each year, on a 6 it is rotten and must be replaced.
Problems: Multiple Weirs block passage on a river, which results in boat men destroying them.

Size Max allowing passage Maximum Total
Huge 4 per bank 8
Large 3 per bank 7
Medium 3, one bank 5
Small 2, one bank 3

Riding and Route

A riding and route allows boat passage, yet keeps the maximum number of Weirs working. A route is a passageway that is wide and deep enough to allow boats to pass. It must be sufficient to carry the largest boats that the river allows. A riding is a pathway dug parallel to the river, next to the route.


By definition, Woods are thick enough to provide additional income. If it is a Royal Forest the lord must have acquired the liberties (rights) to exploit
the wealth of this environment. With careful forestry Woods can provide a regular income. However, Woods are not limitless and overexploitation is always a danger. The interrelationship of trees, brush, and animals means that the overexploitation of one resource can trigger a decline in the entire ecology.

Manor Improvements and Investments

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